Poverty is not always solely defined by the amount of income one receives. Rather, it is multidimensional - for example, the Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme have developed the Multidimensional Poverty Index - a set of indicators disaggregated according to the dimensions of health, education and living standards.
According to "Five Evils: Multidimensional Poverty and Race in America" published by the Brookings Institution, a similar insight had been presented by William Beveridge, a British academic, during the Second World War. In his report, Social Insurance and Allied Services, he introduced the concepts of the "Five Giant Evils," which were "squalor, ignorance, want, idleness, and disease."
The paper maintains that multifaceted disadvantages are still visible in today's society, and may ring truer to the gap between different races. Adopting 5 dimensions of poverty low household income - limited education, lack of health insurance, low-income area, and umemployment - the report embarks on the differences among race with regard to each dimension.